Environmental and Social Review Summary
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Dakar
This Environmental and Social Review Summary (ESRS) is prepared by MIGA staff and disclosed prior to the date on which MIGA’s Board of Directors considers the proposed issuance of a Contract of Guarantee. Its purpose is to enhance the transparency of MIGA’s activities. This document should not be construed as presuming the outcome of the decision by MIGA’s Board of Directors. Board dates are estimates only.
Any documentation that is attached to this ESRS has been prepared by the project sponsor, and authorization has been given for public release. MIGA has reviewed the attached documentation as provided by the applicant, and considers it of adequate quality to be released to the public, but does not endorse the content.
Meridiam (the Guarantee Holder or ‘GH’) is seeking MIGA’s political risk insurance against the risks of Expropriation, Transfer Restriction, War and Civil Disturbance, and Breach of Contract to cover its equity and quasi equity investments in Dakar Mobilité SA (DM, the Project Enterprise or PE). The investment amount is up to EUR 23 million and the tenor is up to 15 years. Currently, to finance the project, a pool of Lenders is being considered.
DM signed a Concession Agreement (CA) in March 2022 with the Executive Council of Urban Transport (CETUD), acting on behalf of the government of Senegal (GoS) as the delegated conceding authority for the acquisition of rolling stock, and the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the first Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) network in Dakar (the Project), for period of 15 years. In 2017 the Government of Senegal (GoS) obtained IDA financing totaling €280.9 million (c. US$300 million) and EIB financing of €80 million for the construction of the BRT infrastructure. The BRT infrastructure contract was awarded to China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) under the supervision of CETUD and its delegated project manager, the Agency for Road Works and Management (AGEROUTE). The information on the World Bank’s Dakar Bus Rapid Transit Pilot Project (P156186) can be found at this link.
Under the CA, the DM is responsible for procuring, operating and maintaining 120 electric buses, charging stations (~ 80) for the buses located at the bus depot, as well as the equipment required for the routine maintenance of the BRT. The rest of the BRT infrastructure will continue to be owned by CETUD but will be operated and maintained by DM within the limits defined by the concession contract. These include i) 18.3 kilometers (km) of the 2-lane 7 meters wide corridor exclusively dedicated to buses; ii) 23 stations including 3 exchange terminals and the associated ticketing system; iii) a bus depot with the total area of 6 hectares which will include bus garage, control center, maintenance center and administrative buildings; v) other associated infrastructure such as electrical lines, substations and green spaces. The BRT infrastructure is considered as an Associated Facility of the Project (as defined in Performance Standard 1) over which the DM has control during operations, but no control and only very limited influence during construction.
During operations, according to the CA, DM will be responsible for the routine maintenance of the BRT corridor including simple repairs, cleaning of pits and culverts, removing stones and debris, cleaning and painting of the road signs, maintenance of the lighting fixtures, and cleaning of the stations. CETUD will be responsible for a periodic repairs and capital improvements of the BRT infrastructure including the transverse and horizontal surface repairs (as needed). DM will also be responsible for operation and maintenance of green spaces, and the provision of the transportation service according to technical performance standards.
The BRT network will traverse the most densely populated areas of Dakar connecting the downtown areas with the of the city of Guédiawaye. The construction of the BRT started in November 2019 and is currently ongoing and are targeted to be completed in July 2023. The BRT right-of-way (ROW) ranges from 22 meters to 35 meters. The construction process required clearing of the ROW and involved economic and physical resettlement (see more details below under PS5 section). In terms of the project design, the civil works are divided into 12 sections. As of September 2022, land acquisition process, network diversions and sewage works were completed in all 12 sections, whereas the clearing of the ROW is completed in 10 sections out of 12.
The BRT will serve 14 municipalities and is expected to transport up to 300,000 passengers per day. It will provide 4 types of transport services including 1 omnibus line that will stop at every station, 2 semi-express lines that will stop at certain stations and an express line which will only stop at 3 stations and 45 minutes travel time instead of 90.
Once construction is complete, a period of 6 months is targeted to install and commission the equipment and test essential systems, including the preliminary operating tests with 20 buses commencing in May 2023, to start operations in Q4 2023.
The charging of buses will require a high voltage connection between the depot and the grid and DM will be responsible for financing the connection, as well as the environmental impact assessment studies and potential resettlement issues. The connection will be constructed by COSELEC, and then owned, operated and maintained by SENELEC (la Société nationale d’Electricité du Sénégal). DM and SENELEC have already identified a route that is considered very optimal in terms of minimizing E&S impacts. The recruitment process for the consultant to carry out the ESIA is underway, and the study will be completed by the end of March 2023. This line is about 5 km long and is reserved for the main power supply and the backup line will be selected following the E&S screening that will be carried out on SENELEC's proposals. No land acquisition is expected for the electrical connection. However, the selected corridor may result in temporary minor loss of income. The grid connection works are expected to take ~14 months.
The Project is classified as Category A according to MIGA’s Policy on Environmental and Social Sustainability (2013) due primarily to the risks and impacts related to the construction of the BRT infrastructure (Associated Facilities to the MIGA Project). Key risks related to the responsibilities of DM under the CA include i) labor and working conditions; (ii) traffic safety; (iii) generation and management hazardous waste including electric waste and used oils; (iv) occupational health and safety including drivers ergonomics and electrical safety; and (v) supply chain issues related to the procurement of the buses.
For the construction of the BRT infrastructure which is under the responsibility of CETUD the key environmental and social (E&S) risks/impacts include: (i) the physical and/ or economic displacement of approximately 2000 Project Affected People (PAPs) (ii) labor and working conditions; (iii) community health and safety (iv) waste generation and management; (v) occupational health and safety. As mentioned above, these Associated Facilities are the focus of a separate World Bank Project
While all Performance Standards (PSs) are applicable to this investment, information available at the time of MIGA due diligence indicates that the Project will have E&S impacts which must be managed in a manner consistent with the following Performance Standards (PSs):
- PS1: Assessment and Management of Environmental and Social Risks and Impacts
- PS2: Labor and Working Conditions
- PS3: Resource Efficiency and Pollution Prevention
- PS4: Community Health, Safety and Security
- PS5: Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement
PS6 Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Living Natural Resources is not triggered because the BRT construction and operation will be implemented in existing highly populated urban areas and there are no potential impacts on biodiversity identified.
No communities of the indigenous peoples were identified in the project area of influence. Therefore, PS7 Indigenous Peoples is not triggered.
Though the World Bank (WB) project has triggered Operational Policy 4.11, Physical Cultural Resources in 2017, it was mainly attributed to potential chance finds during the BRT construction process and the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) has not identified any cultural heritage within the Project ROW. Based on the available E&S monitoring information, no additional risks related to cultural heritage have been flagged. Therefore, PS 8 Cultural Heritage is not triggered.
In addition, the following World Bank Group Environmental, Health, and Safety (WBG EHS) Guidelines are applicable to the Project:
- General EHS Guidelines (2007);
- EHS Guidelines for Toll Roads (2007); and
 The EHS Guidelines for Toll Roads include information relevant to the construction, operation and maintenance of large, sealed road projects including associated bridges and overpasses.
The following documents were reviewed by MIGA:
- Préparation d’une expérience pilote d’un système de bus rapides sur voie réservée à Dakar (BRT). Etude D’impact Environnemental et Social. (Prepared for CETUD) Rapport final. Janvier 2017.
- Cadre de Gestion Environnementale Et Sociale (CGES). CETUD, Janvier 2017.
- BRT Rapport du Plan d’Action de Réinstallation (PAR), Janvier 2017.
- BRT Cadre de Politique de Reinstallation (CPR), CETUD, Janvier 2017
- Pilot Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Project in Dakar. Executive Summary of safeguard documents (ESIA, RAP, ESMF, RPF). January 2017
- The WB Project Appraisal Document (Report No: PAD2209). Dakar Bus Rapid Transit Pilot Project (P156186).
- The WB Combined Project Information Documents / Integrated Safeguards Datasheet (PID/ISDS). Dakar Bus Rapid Transit Pilot Project (P156186). Apr 2017
- Plan Engagement des Parties Prenantes. CETUD. December 2018.
- Addendum N°1 au Plan D’action de Reinstallation, Rapport Final de janvier 2017, CETUD, Janvier 2019.
- CETUD Rapports Trimestriel De Suivi et De Surveillance Environnementale et Sociale, Hygiene, Sante et Securite. Periode du 2020 au 2022.
- Rapports mensuel et trimestriel de Surveillance Environnementale. CETUD, AGEROUTE. Periode du 2021 au 2022.
- Rapports D’activites trimestriel. AGEROUTE. 2021.
- Rapports Mensuel HSE. CRBC, 2021-2022
- Concession Agreement (CA) between CETUD and Dakar Mobilite. Apr 2022.
- Environmental and Social Due Diligence of BRT Dakar Project. Red Flag Report. IBIS Consulting. Oct 2022.
IBIS Environmental Social Consulting Europe SAS (IBIS), an Independent Environmental and Social Consultant (IESC), was engaged by potential Lenders to assist with the E&S due diligence to assess compliance of the DM and the BRT construction against the PSs. In addition to reviewing the above documents, MIGA, IESC and the Lenders visited DM office and the BRT construction in September 2022. The visit included a walk-over of the BRT construction sites (3 road sections and the bus depot construction site), meetings with Project Affected People, visits to the resettlement sites and the meetings with CETUD, CRBC and AGEROUTE. MIGA also separately met with the WB environmental and social specialists.
MIGA’s due diligence review considered the E&S management planning process and documentation for the Project and identified gaps between these and MIGA’s requirements. Where necessary, corrective measures, intended to close these gaps within a reasonable period, are summarized in the paragraphs that follow and in the Environmental and Social Action Plan (“ESAP”) attached to this ESRS. Through the implementation of these measures, the Project is expected to be designed and operated in accordance with the requirements of the applicable Performance Standards.
Key E&S risks/impacts associated with the Project are summarized in the paragraphs that follow. As mentioned in the Project Description, DM has very limited influence and no control over the construction of BRT infrastructure. MIGA’s focus for E&S due diligence was on the roles and responsibilities of DM, and the E&S risks and impacts of the BRT construction are only briefly described. A more comprehensive discussion of the risks and impacts associated with the construction of the BRT infrastructure is available in the information on the World Bank’s Dakar Bus Rapid Transit Pilot Project.
PS1: Assessment and Management of Environmental and Social Risks and Impacts
Environmental and Social Assessment and Management System
DM’s ESMS is still in the development stage to cover the procurement, the recruitment, and the operational phase. Following the requirements of the CA, DM will develop an ESMS in line with the requirements of the PS 1 which will be appropriate to the nature and scale of the project and commensurate with the level of its environmental and social risks and impacts. The ESMS will incorporate the following elements: (i) policy; (ii) identification of risks and impacts; (iii) management programs; (iv) organizational capacity and competency; (v) emergency preparedness and response; (vi) stakeholder engagement; Grievance Redress Mechanism (GRM) and (vii) monitoring and review (ESAP action item).
DM will develop an E&S policy document defining the environmental and social objectives and principles that guide the project, provide a framework for the environmental and social assessment and management process, and specify that the Project will comply with the applicable Senegalese laws and regulations (ESAP action item).
Identification of Risks and Impacts
The works and activities stipulated under the CA, i.e., the operations and maintenance of the BRT network, will not require a standalone environmental and social impact assessment as per the requirements of the Senegalese Environmental Code (2001), and, specifically, the classifications by the type of activities (Installations classées pour la protection de l'environnement, ICPE). As a part of its E&S Management Program (described in the next section), DM will develop plans and procedures that will address the associated E&S risks including occupational health and safety (drivers ergonomics, safety during buses maintenance, electric safety associated with bus charging and ticketing system), safety and security of passengers and general public, waste management including domestic waste and hazardous waste generated during the maintenance works and disposal of electric components.
The works associated with the electric connections to the high voltage substations in Guediewaye are not defined yet. As a part of the ESMS, DM will have a procedure for the identification of risks and impacts and, following the requirements of the Environmental Code and depending on design documentation and the ICPE classification of the facilities, will develop a necessary environmental and social impact assessment documentation (ESAP action item).
CETUD has developed the ESIA report for the construction of the BRT network in January 2017 in line with the Environmental Code, and the requirements of the WB Safeguards Policy 4.01 Environmental Assessment. ESIA Report included the framework Environmental and Social Management Plan that covered the operations stage of the project. In addition, CETUD developed E&S Management Framework document which describes the different stages of the environmental and social management process for activities/ subprojects that were not yet defined at the time when the BRT project was provided for the WB consideration. These reports were disclosed at the World Bank website on January 1st, 2017 and are available under the following link.
A climate risk screening has been performed for the Project. Climate hazards such as flooding as a result of extreme weather are expected to intensify and increase in frequency over the near to middle term. The Project region has also historically been impacted by insufficient stormwater drainage networks which are unable to safely and efficiently evacuate rainwater. The World Bank’s support for the development of the BRT corridor included specific financing for the development of a drainage system as part of the BRT infrastructure. According to the World Bank’s Project Appraisal Document (Report No: PAD2209), this drainage system would be adapted to account for changing flood risks as a result of climate change and would make the BRT corridor more climate resilient.
As required by the CA (Annex 17), DM will develop an Environmental and Social Management Program that would be commensurate to the risks of the BRT operations and maintenance activities in line with MIGA’s PSs. The Program will consist of a combination of operational procedures, practices, plans and associated documents including E&S Management Plan, Security Risk Assessment and Management Plan, Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Management Plan, procedures for risk assessment and management including job safety analyses, E&S training plan, emergency response plan including medical emergencies, water and wastewater management plan, hazardous substances management plan, a plan for the disposal of used batteries that would prioritize the recycle and reuse options, and road safety management plan (ESAP action item). In accordance with Meridiam's E&S Sustainability Policy, DM may need to develop other plans as part of its ESMS.
For the transmission line connections, DM will work closely with SENELEC to encourage the development the Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Management Plan in line with the requirements of the PSs and the WBG EHS Guidelines (ESAP action item).
Organizational Capacity and Training:
As of September 2022, DM employed the Environmental and Social Consultant who worked together with Meridiam and DM to set up a framework for the development of the ESMS and develop a Terms of Reference for the E&S staff including the Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Manager. As per the organigram, the ESG Manager will be supported by environmental officer, OHS officer, compliance officer, social and communities chief officer and the communities liaison officer. DM has already appointed a suitably qualified ESG Manager who has been in place since October 1, 2022, and that will be responsible for the overall Project E&S performance (ESAP action item).
The Project also employed a qualified security specialist who will be responsible for security risk assessment and management. They will work closely with private security companies and providers of security equipment and define the number of security personnel based on the magnitude of risks.
Per the CA, CETUD and DM must jointly appoint an independent E&S Consultant, to assess the compliance of DM’s ESMS with the requirements of the PSs. In addition, DM will have an independent safety auditor who will periodically conduct the audit for the compliance of safety and security provisions with the requirements of PSs and the WBG EHS Guidelines.
DM will develop E&S and OHS Training procedure and plan for all staff as part of the ESMS (ESAP action item). The procedure will detail the EHS training that will be identified and implemented during the Project and will include both formal and informal training requirements.
Emergency Preparedness and Response
An Emergency Preparedness and Response Procedure (EPPR) will be developed as part of the ESMS (ESAP action item). This Procedure will include descriptions of potential emergency scenarios related to operations and maintenance and the collaborative engagement/coordination with local governments. The Procedure will also include natural disaster and project-induced emergency scenarios and a description of the roles and responsibilities, available local services that can support in an emergency, and a description of the general evacuation and response training that will be required for emergency scenarios including situations involving BRT passengers. The ERRP will also include a COVID-19 and other public health threats risk management plans.
Monitoring and Review
The ESMS will also include a Monitoring Procedure (ESAP action item), which will describe the overall requirements to ensure that there is adequate control of significant environmental and social aspects as well as compliance with the Senegalese legislation and requirements and the PSs.
During the operations, DM will compile and submit the periodic statutory reports in line with national legislation including environmental monitoring, fire safety and OHS. The DM E&S staff will engage with CETUD, AGEROUTE and CRBC on the regular basis and share with MIGA the information about significant E&S events related to BRT construction. DM will provide quarterly E&S monitoring reports to MIGA during the construction process of the electrical connection lines until the construction is completed (condition to be included in the MIGA CoG). In addition, the Project will also provide MIGA with an Annual Monitoring Report (AMR) that contains copies of statutory reports as well as reports on compliance with the PSs (condition to be included in the MIGA CoG).
Based on the CA, CETUD and DM must jointly appoint an independent E&S Consultant in order to (a) verify compliance by the Concessionaire with all of the obligations relating to environmental and social responsibility under the CA; and (b) report to the Parties the results of its compliance review, detailing for each area compliance or non-compliance with the stipulations of the CA; (c) provide recommendations for corrective action to be implemented by the Concessionaire, a timetable for their implementation; and (d) review the implementation of such corrective actions. Per the ESAP, DM will integrate the verification of compliance with MIGA PSs in the consultant ToR and share the ToR for MIGA review.
Extensive stakeholder engagement was undertaken as part of the BRT construction ESIA and during the development of the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) in compliance with the WB OP 4.01 Environmental Assessment and OP 4.12 Involuntary Resettlement. A Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP) was developed by CETUD and disclosed in December 2018. It included, among other things, engagement principles, objectives and criteria, identification, characterization and priority of stakeholders, focusing on those directly affected and identifying vulnerable persons and groups; engagement program, description of grievance redress mechanisms, the table of time-bound activities, resources and responsibilities. A full range of stakeholders including communities and residents affected by BRT and the operators of the public transport networks were consulted to gather local knowledge for determining baseline conditions, understand perceptions of the community regarding impact significance, and propose meaningful mitigation measures.
As specified in the CA, DM will maintain and implement the SEP already developed by the CETUD to manage relationships with affected communities and other Project stakeholders throughout the duration of the Concession. DM will disclose the SEP on its website and communicate it to key stakeholder not yet covered during the original stakeholder engagement processes (ESAP action item).
External Communication and Grievance Mechanisms:
The Grievance Redress Mechanism (GRM) for the BRT construction is a part of the SEP that CETUD disclosed in December 2018. SEP adequately describes the steps required for grievances filing and registration, review and resolution, notifications on resolutions, procedure for appeals, and closure of grievances. Monitoring indicates that CETUD has developed an effective system of tracking grievances and their resolution. As of September 2022, CETUD had received 1369 complaints 95 % of which have been resolved.
As part of the ESMS, DM will develop and implement its own GRM for external grievances in line with PS 1 (ESAP action item). The GRM Procedure will describe the steps to be followed to collect, record, evaluate and respond to complaints and grievances raised by external stakeholders. The means for submitting the grievances will include verbally, in writing and anonymously, including special GRM provisions for the GBV cases. As a part of the GRM Procedure, the Project will ensure ongoing reporting to affected communities.
PS2: Labor and Working Conditions
As of September 2022, DM employed 12 staff including 3 females. DM has developed a staff mobilization plan which states that at the start of the operations it will be directly employing around 990 staff including operations and safety including drivers (608), support functions (47), maintenance (75) and passenger service (260). DM has a strategy for female recruitment where the number of female employees should be at least 35% of the total workforce. DM will be using a social integration recruitment plan which will include meeting with community associations, signing formal agreement on recruitment, communicating job opportunities and conducting profile selection interviews.
DM also uses the list of pre-established recruitment agencies depending on the type of positions. DM will ensure that the recruitment process is compliant with the requirements of PS 2 and that the contracts with the recruitment agencies and the agreements with community associations include provisions on working conditions and terms of employment, non-discrimination and equal opportunity, grievance mechanism, forced and child labor among other things, as applicable (ESAP action item).
Working Conditions and Management of Worker Relationship
DM will develop a Human Resource (HR) policy and procedures in line with PS2 requirements for the operations and maintenance of the Project and ensure that all employees have written contracts (ESAP action item). The HR policy and procedures will include provisions for working conditions; terms of employment; non-discrimination and equal opportunity; retrenchment; grievance mechanism; occupational health and safety; and the prohibition of child and forced labor.
DM will develop a Gender Strategy and the Action Plan and will establish an internal GBV specific GRM (ESAP action item). The Project will also develop and implement a Code of Conduct that will address the GBV issues among other things. As part of the HR Policy, the Project will develop and implement a sexual harassment policy according to PS2 requirements (ESAP action item).
Occupational Health and Safety
During operations and maintenance, the BRT workers and operators will be exposed to hazards and risks including traffic safety and road accidents; noise and dust; electric safety during the maintenance and operation of the charging stations and buses; ergonomic hazards; hazardous and flammable materials such as oils and lubricants; and hazardous waste (including electric waste). As part of the ESMS, the DM will develop an OHS Management Plan to mitigate and address the above risks (ESAP action item).
During the operational phase, DM will ensure that the following mitigation measures are applied at the bus depot and the BRT line: safety signs, barriers, speed limits appropriate for specific zones (the average bus speed at the BRT will be around 25 km/h), traffic calming measures and visible Personal Protection Equipment (PPE). The charging areas will be equipped with various safeguards including the system of authorized access to the charging stations, designing the charging stations in line with international best practices such as CSN EN 62196 (2017) . There will be safety officers and trained first aiders at the bus depot with separate first aid room, liaison mechanism with local hospitals and other institutions will also be established in case of any emergency. DM will also ensure that DM’s offices in Dakar, the stations, the depot and other facilities comply with the requirements of the WBG EHS guidelines and are equipped with the fire prevention systems, means of egress, fire prevention and control, and have in place the operations and maintenance manuals covering the OHS aspects (ESAP action item).
As required by the CA, the DM will conduct a training to the bus drivers that would cover traffic rules and road signs, awareness and assessment of road risks, emergency response including passenger’s and other road users, ergonomics (postures, fatigue), and effects of alcohol, medication or any substance that may alter the behavior. Such training to the drivers will be included in the overall DM’s OHS and E&S training plan (ESAP action item).
Workers Engaged by Third Parties and the Supply chain
Human resources policies and requirements will be extended to applicable contractors as required by PS2 as described above. DM will develop a Human Rights, Forced and Child Labor Policy which will outlines the steps taken to prevent and eradicate forced labor and human trafficking in the BRT supply chains including the electric buses and charging stations (ESAP action item). The DM will develop requirements and engage in dialogue with suppliers and sub-contractors in relation to managing E&S risks within their supply chain. A subcontractor management plan is being developed and will include E&S requirements in line with MIGA PSs.
PS3: Resource Efficiency and Pollution Prevention
Based on the ESIA, the BRT operations will bring positive environmental changes in terms of reduced air pollution due to the use of electric busses, reduced traffic and better maintenance of the paved roads. The potential adverse environmental impacts are minor in scale and include noise and vibration; solid waste generation; potential pollution of soil and water at the bus depot area. The relevant recommendations and mitigation measures will be incorporated into the ESMP. As required by the CA, DM will operate and maintain the bus depot and other BRT infrastructure in line with the requirements of the applicable WB EHS Guidelines.
Resource Efficiency and Pollution Prevention
The bus depot will have a bus wash station equipped with a water tank and a water recycling system. The sizing of the water tank is not yet finalized. As per the depot design, it will also be equipped with a system of rainwater collection. As per the CA, DM will apply preventive measures against the excessive use of water required for maintenance and operations including the maintenance of green spaces (e.g. i.e. water needs for irrigation) These measures must include, as a minimum, application of systems for the recovery and recycling of water that is used to clean vehicles; maintaining a monthly statistics on the water use; and conducting a training course on the efficient use of water. Per the ESAP, the DM will develop and implement a Water and Wastewater Management Plan.
DM will build the facilities for washing the chassis of the buses with a ramp / channel equipped with a wastewater disposal system, with retention and separation of grease, oil and other substances, in order to avoid any release into the rainwater drainage system. As required by the CA, DM will use detergents and solvents that are not harmful to the environment.
Hazardous Materials Management:
Hazardous materials and wastes during BRT operations will include contaminated containers, used paint, waste coolant, greases, , hydraulic fluids, spent solvents from equipment cleaning activities and spent batteries or spent acid/alkali from the maintenance of machinery on site. As part of the ESMS, the Project will develop and implement a Hazardous Materials Management Procedure which sets out the requirements for a proper system for hazardous materials storage and management at site to avoid any accidental spillages, documentation and record keeping of hazardous materials and wastes, which will be periodically reviewed by the DM’s ESG Manager (ESAP action item).
The lifetime of the batteries installed in the buses is expected to be at least 8 years. CA requires that at the time of renewal, the DM ensures that the installation of the replacement batteries is based on the best available technology in the market. Based on the CA, DM must have an appropriate reuse and/or recycling and management strategy for used batteries at the end of their lifespan, in accordance with national and international laws, regulations and best practices. The operations of the BRT will also involve a generation of insignificant amount of the domestic solid waste collected at the receptacles (e.g., at the BRT stations). Such waste will be collected by the city of Dakar general waste collection services. A system will be put in place by DM to ensure the tracking of the transport, storage and treatment/destruction of hazardous waste. DM will develop a Waste Management Plan (WMP) with provisions for hazardous and domestic solid waste storage, handling, transport, and disposal in line with PS3 and the WBG EHS Guidelines (ESAP action item).
PS4: Community Health, Safety and Security
The BRT will have 23 stations and will traverse highly populated urban areas. The Project was designed to improve transportation for the general public.
Community Health and Safety
Potentially negative community health risks and impacts during operation stem from dust and noise due to the movement of buses and vehicles, traffic accidents and potential emergency scenarios. DM will develop a Community Health and Safety Plan for operation including provisions for traffic safety management (including pedestrian and cyclist safety), emergency response procedures, coordination with traffic police, security and the safety of other road users (ESAP action item). Traffic safety measures will include speed limitations, speed reduction systems, traffic control signs, pedestrian crossings and the BRT driver training (as described under PS 2). In terms of emergency response, the Plan will also include identification of potential emergency scenarios, how to address them, steps for setting up lines of communication for external liaison and reporting, and coordination between the Project’s internal, and external emergency services.
In addition, the Project shall ensure all drivers and staff have access to a free health consultation, screening, medication and means of protection to avoid the spread of the potential diseases, and coordinate awareness and communication campaign among general population.
To address the risks associated with the gender-based violence (GBV), DM will develop a gender action plan including the mapping of the GBV response providers and support network for the GBV victims and the development of the GBV specific Grievance Redress Mechanism (GRM) (ESAP action item).
Infrastructure and Equipment Design and Safety
According to the CA, the electric buses will have to comply with various safety standards and specifications including ISO 6469 (2015-2022) - Electrically Propelled Road Vehicles. All buses will be equipped with the system for recording and storing the information about speed, running and stopping time, distance travelled. Such system will transmit the information from each individual bus to the centralized control center every 5 minutes. Each vehicle will be provided with fire extinguisher and equipped with emergency exits.
DM is planning to conduct a security risk assessment study to inform Security Management Plan (SMP) that will be developed as a part of the ESMS and will comply with the requirements of PS 4 (ESAP action item). The plan will focus on 4 main areas including DM’s employees, BRT passengers and general public, DM’s tangible assets and intangible assets (including social media and reputation). The SMP will outline a clear commitment by the Project in terms of selection, recruitment, vetting and appropriate training of security contractors or employees responsible for security (e.g. station based intervention teams), and will contain the requirements with regards to the use of force. The Plan will include incident reporting and follow-up procedures, and response measures for any security-related incidents and complaints received through the external GRM.
PS5: Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement
No land acquisition or resettlement is anticipated under DM mandate during operations and maintenance of the BRT; however, land acquisition and resettlement was required for the construction of the BRT infrastructure, an Associated Facility of the Project. No land acquisition is anticipated for transmission lines connecting the charging stations to the grid, however economic resettlement due to temporary loss of income is likely to be required DM will develop and submit to MIGA a Livelihood Restoration Plan in line with the requirements of PS 5 (ESAP action item). DM will follow on through its GRM to receive and treat grievances from customers and communities during operation, and in relation with CETUD for the grievances related to the Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) (ESAP action item).
CETUD developed a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) and a Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) in January 2017 for the BRT construction project in the line with the requirements of the WB’s OP 4.12 Involuntary Resettlement. RAP contained, among other things, the description of alternative design options with a purpose of minimizing the resettlement impacts, socio-economic study, and the methodology for valuation of and compensation for losses. In 2019 changes were made to the original design of the BRT line where several flyovers were added, and the design of the stations has changed requiring additional land acquisition. CETUD issued an Addendum to RAP in June 2019 to accommodate the changes in the design and account for new Project Affected People (PAPs).
Compensation and Benefits for Displaced Persons
According to the RAP (including the Addendum) the BRT construction project required the acquisition of around 12,000 square meters (m2) of land and affecting 1485 PAPs:
- Loss of housing- 649 PAPs
- Loss of places of business- 762 PAPs
- Loss of community assets- 28 PAPs
- Loss of housing when combined with a place of business- 45 PAPs
- Loss of community assets- 1 PAP
The RAP also stipulates compensation for the loss 21 trees including 7 young fruit trees and 14 forest species.
The RAP defines eligibility criteria and entitlement packages for eligible PAPs whose land, assets, and livelihood will be affected in line with the WB OP 4.12, which are consistent with the entitlements required under PS 5.
Based on the information provided by CETUD during the due diligence mission the compensation is 99% complete. There is evidence that the compensation amounts were sufficient to replace the lost land and other assets at full replacement cost in the local market. PAPs were able to acquire land and/or housing, in many cases significantly improving their living conditions. Overall, based on the available information, the BRT construction project land acquisition process is materially compliant with the requirements of the PS 5.
Following all compensation activities, the World Bank and CETUD committed to conduct a resettlement completion audit by a qualified consultant. Although the dates are not yet defined, DM will encourage CETUD to conduct the verification audit, request the audit report and share the report with MIGA as soon as DM receives CETUD endorsement (ESAP action item).
CETUD implemented a stakeholder participation program that allowed for a participatory approach including PAP’s and other stakeholders input to the RAP development. CETUD also developed and disclosed on its website the RAP Guide, a document that describes to the general public the principles of compensation, eligibility, compensation rates based on the land value, roles and responsibilities and the grievance redress mechanism. The Guide also references the requirements of the WB OP 4.12 Involuntary Resettlement, which are consistent with the requirements of PS 5.
During the preparation of the RAP, the names of the heads of households of project affected persons (PAPs), were publicly displayed at the Préfectures of Dakar and Guédiawaye, and respective municipalities. PAPs who felt that they were impacted but were not listed, could file their complaints with the Prefecture’s Commissions Départementales de Recensement et d’Evaluation des Impenses (CDREI). If the PAP was not satisfied, the CDREI submitted the case to the CETUD ad-hoc committee for resettlement census related claims, supported by the consultant who was preparing the RAP.
During the implementation of the RAP, Grievance Redress Mechanisms included four steps. Firstly, PAPs wishing to file complaints could contact CETUD directly. The next step is the local mediation committee (Comité local de médiation, CLM), in case the PAPs were not satisfied with the first decision. The CLM will include representatives of PAPs, representatives of local municipalities, representatives of community organizations and Non-government Organizations (NGOs), and a representative of CETUD. The role of the CLM is to settle cases amicably. Next step would be submitting complaints to the Médiateur de la République (Ombudsman). The fourth resort would be for the PAP file her/his complaint, with the formal legal system. CETUD has developed an effective system for recoding complaints and tracking their resolution.
 CSN EN 62196 - Plugs, socket-outlets, vehicle connectors and vehicle inlets - Conductive charging of electric vehicles. European Committee for Standardization. 2017
The documentation listed below is available electronically as PDF attachments to this ESRS at www.miga.org.
- Pilot Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Project in Dakar. Executive Summary of safeguard documents (ESIA, RAP, ESMF, RPF). January 2017
- Addendum N°1 au Plan D’action de Reinstallation, Rapport Final de janvier 2017, CETUD, Janvier 2019.
- ESAP BRT Dakar
For additional information, please contact:
Contact name: Dr. Mariétou NDIAYE
Contact number: +221 76 6201766
Broad Community Support is not applicable for this project.
MIGA supports its clients (as defined in MIGA Policy on Environmental and Social Sustainability) in addressing environmental and social issues arising from their business activities by requiring them to set up and administer appropriate grievance mechanisms and/or procedures to address complaints from Affected Communities.
In addition, Affected Communities have unrestricted access to the Compliance Advisor/Ombudsman (CAO), the independent accountability mechanism for MIGA. The CAO is mandated to address complaints from people affected by MIGA-guaranteed business activities in a manner that is fair, objective, and constructive, with the goal of improving environmental and social project outcomes and fostering greater public accountability of MIGA.
Independent of MIGA management and reporting directly to the World Bank Group President, the CAO works to resolve complaints using a flexible, problem-solving approach through its dispute resolution arm and oversees project-level audits of MIGA’s environmental and social performance through its compliance arm.
Complaints may relate to any aspect of MIGA-guaranteed business activities that is within the mandate of the CAO. They can be made by any individual, group, community, entity, or other party affected or likely to be affected by the environmental or social impacts of a MIGA-guaranteed business activity. Complaints can be submitted to the CAO in writing to the address below:
International Finance Corporation
2121 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20433 USA
Tel: 1 202 458 1973
Fax: 1 202 522 7400